Food environment framework in low- and middle-income countries – An integrative review (2023 Dec)

Neha Gupta, Vaishali Deshmukh, Sonika Verma, Seema Puri, Nikhil Tandon, Narendra K. Arora. Food environment framework in low- and middle-income countries – An integrative review. Global Food Security. Volume 39. 2023. 100716. ISSN 2211-9124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2023.100716. (pay wall)

Relevant to: 

Researchers from multidisciplinary domains, policy makers, program managers

Question: 

The integrative review addressed the following objectives: (1) to develop a multi-level framework of Food Environments (FE) for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) based on McLeroy socio ecological theory and Penchansky and Thomas’s theory of access; (2) to identify the factors operating at different levels of the FE framework; and (3) to understand the relationship between factors operating at different levels of FE framework and dietary behaviors in LMICs.

Bottom line for nutrition practice: 

  • Food environment embedded in the food systems is a key consideration in sustainability. This study finds that the food environments in LMICs are in a dynamic state and have context specific mix of traditional systems and emerging modern supply chain-based markets.
  • The proposed socio-ecological model of the food environment in the context of LMICs should lay the foundation for an operational and analytical tool for surveillance, capturing dynamicity and its determinants.

Abstract: 

  • There are major gaps in our understanding of food environments (FE) in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) witnessing differential and complex social and economic transition. The present integrative review was conducted to develop a conceptual framework of FE for LMICs using socio-ecological and access theory. The FE framework has four layers: public policy, community/neighborhood (including organizational e.g., markets, schools), household, and individual. Availability, accessibility, and affordability with built-in socio-cultural and contextual factors were the major domains in every layer. The following additional domains emerged: global influences, marketing and regulation, nutrition programs, time-constrained family members, and food behavior. Wet and informal markets are important components of FE. The next step is determining the model’s resilience to accommodate and capture nuances across LMICs.

Details of results: 

  • The integrative review included evidence from 28 studies about food environment in low and middle-income countries in the last two decades.
  • The review used McLeroy’s socio-ecological model and Penchansky’s access theory as the basis for identifying the socio-economic and ecological factors operating at multiple levels in the LMIC food environment that influence dietary outcomes.
  • The factors were operating at (i) policy, (ii) community, (iii) household, and (iv) individual levels under the availability, affordability, and accessibility domains at each level are interwoven among themselves
  • The review identified that context and neighborhood characteristics characterise the food environment. In addition, the unorganized markets comprise of the major component of food environment
  • The evidence synthesis identified the following additional domains at multiple levels: Nutrition programs and global influences (Policy level); marketing and regulations (policy and neighborhood level); and time constraint and food behavior (household level).

Of additional interest: 

n/a

Conflict of interest/ Funding:  

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

External relevant links:  

n/a

Corresponding author: 

Seema Puri, Department of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, dr.seemapuri@gmail.com

Environmental imprints of agricultural and livestock produce: a scoping review from South Asian countries (2023 Dec)

Sachdeva B, Puri S, Aeri BT. Environmental imprints of agricultural and livestock produce: a scoping review from South Asian countries. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2023: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.1323 (pay wall)

Relevant to: 

Medical professionals, nutrition experts, chefs, foodservice procurement

Question: 

The present study explored the role of South Asian food crops and livestock in environmental degradation.

Bottom line for nutrition practice: 

  • A prerequisite for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals is the sustainable food production. Many foods that are healthy for people are healthy for the environment, too. Trained medical professionals and nutrition experts encourage healthy eating. According to the research, nutrition experts in South Asian nations do possess enough understanding about sustainable food systems. Thus, in addition to nutrition education, they can spread the knowledge about food sustainability as well.
  • At the public level, concept of food sustainability can be promoted by chefs or nutritionists who oversee large food establishments and serve maximum population. Providing plant-based, seasonal, varied, and traditional menus, along with reduced portion sizes, could be easy yet effective ways to encourage sustainable diets and decrease food waste.

Abstract: 

  • Background: Global agricultural activities in 2020 produced 5.5 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent, and this amount is projected to increase since 70% more food would need to be produced in 2050 to feed the world’s population. Food security in South Asian countries is expected to rise due to increased agricultural output, yet it is unclear how their livestock and food crops will affect the environment. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the environmental effects of agricultural activities (pre and post-production) associated with edible food crops and livestock products consumed in eight South Asian nations.
  • Methods: Three databases—PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct—were used to find the studies between 2011 and 2022. There was no registered protocol for this scoping review.
  • Results: The criteria for inclusion were met by twenty-seven studies. Most of the research was done in India. The assessment of greenhouse gas emissions was reported in twenty-four papers followed by water footprints (n = 5), emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus (n = 4), and land requirements (n = 4).A major source of greenhouse gas emissions has been found to be the cultivation of wheat and rice. It has been reported that the production of livestock (meat, dairy, prawns, and bovine) in Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka has also a negative impact on the environmental. For other environment variables, inconclusive data were obtained.
  • Conclusions: Growing more coarse cereals (millets) and diversifying the food production are the requisite steps to reduce the GHG emissions. However, to corroborate the current analysis, further long-term studies for South Asian nations are necessary.

Details of results: 

  • A total of twenty-seven screened studies met the scoping review’s eligibility and were included in the final analysis. Selected research articles discussed the impact of livestock and/or food production on various environmental parameters.
  • With the help of this review, information about various environmental effects of pre- and post-production activities pertaining to food crops and livestock products in South Asian nations was gathered. In accordance with the World Bank’s classification, eight South Asian nations—India, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Pakistan—were taken into consideration.
  • It was observed that greenhouse gas emissions were the most often researched environmental impact worldwide. Retrieved data on land requirements, water footprints, and nitrogen.
  • Understanding a nation’s food production and consumption pattern is essential to ensure food sustainability. Research indicates that due to globalisation there has been a nutrition transition in South Asian countries.
  • Refined products, high fat, high sugar and animal-based food which are consumed more frequently are considered harmful for the environment. Diversifying one’s diet is recommended at the individual level in all six countries. This includes consuming a range of grains and substituting millets (bajra, ragi, and sorghum) for rice/wheat and plant based milk (almond milk for dairy or animal products.

Of additional interest: 

Conflict of interest/ Funding:  

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Corresponding author: 

Seema Puri, Department of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India, dr.seemapuri@gmail.com

Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) for Sri Lankans (2022)

Food Based Dietary Guidelines for Sri Lankans integrates Sustainability messages in the Practitioners’ Handbook. The forward explains that,  “Sri Lanka first published food-based dietary guidelines in 2002. A revised version was launched in 2011. In 2020, Nutrition Division of Ministry of Health undertook the task of reviewing and updating the Food Based Dietary Guideline (FBDG) again, incorporating evidence based latest information along with the global concept of the environmentally sustainable healthy diet.”

The FBDG defines environmentally sustainable diets as “Sustainable healthy diets are dietary patterns that promote all dimensions of individuals’ health and wellbeing; have low environmental pressure and impact; are accessible, affordable, safe and equitable; and are culturally acceptable.” They include tips throughout the FBDG for:

  • Plant-based diets
  • Growing fruits and vegetables organically in the home garden as much as possible.
  • Well-planned home cooked food to reduce food waste

The downloads and power points on the site that are complementary to the Practitioners handbook are less focused on the environmental and societal aspects of sustainable diets, and more focused on human health.

A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture (2021)

Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Buschmann AH, Bush SR, Cao L, Klinger DH, et al. A 20-year retrospective review of global aquaculture. Nature. 2021 2021/03/01;591(7851):551-63. 

Relevant to: 

All Dietitians-Nutritionists.  

Question: 

The authors provide an overview of the changes in global aquaculture from 1997 to 2017 through a review of relevant literature. Aquaculture refers to the practice of breeding, growing, and harvesting fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants. 

Bottom line for nutrition practice: 

As consumption of seafood rises worldwide, there has been tremendous growth in the aquaculture sector, with production tripling over the last 20 years. Asia is the largest aquaculture producer. While aquaculture was once thought of as a marine based activity, freshwater aquaculture now accounts for 75% of the world’s edible volume of raised seafood. Aquaculture has become integrated into the global food system, and is now linked to the land (e.g., fish can be raised inland, and some fish feed is grown inland). The number of species farmed has increased in the last 20 years, although fish, shellfish, and algae make up the majority of the volume. In addition to food, aquaculture generates a variety of other uses (e.g., industrial products, pharmaceuticals), and contributes to rural livelihoods and food security. Most farmed freshwater fish is consumed in domestic markets.   

One of the critiques in the past was the high use of wild fish included in farmed fish feed. An increased use of land based alternative feeds have decreased the amount of wild fish used in feed. The authors also highlight the unrealized potential of species such as seaweed and molluscs (e.g., mussels); these species may also be particularly helpful in providing ecosystem services, as they do not rely on external feed, and improve water quality. The sector will continue to face concerns and uncertainties such as PPP (pathogens, parasites, and pests), climate change and market disruptions (see “Details of Results” for more).   

The authors state that aquaculture systems can be designed and implemented to be sustainable.  

Moving forward, technology and governance will play important roles. Future initiatives to advance aquaculture need to balance nutrition, equity, justice, and environmental outcomes and trade-offs – both on land and at sea.  

Abstract:

The sustainability of aquaculture has been debated intensely since 2000, when a review on the net contribution of aquaculture to world fish supplies was published in Nature. This paper reviews the developments in global aquaculture from 1997 to 2017, incorporating all industry sub-sectors and highlighting the integration of aquaculture in the global food system. Inland aquaculture—especially in Asia—has contributed the most to global production volumes and food security. Major gains have also occurred in aquaculture feed efficiency and fish nutrition, lowering the fish-in–fish-out ratio for all fed species, although the dependence on marine ingredients persists and reliance on terrestrial ingredients has increased. The culture of both molluscs and seaweed is increasingly recognized for its ecosystem services; however, the quantification, valuation, and market development of these services remain rare. The potential for molluscs and seaweed to support global nutritional security is underexploited. Management of pathogens, parasites, and pests remains a sustainability challenge industry-wide, and the effects of climate change on aquaculture remain uncertain and difficult to validate. Pressure on the aquaculture industry to embrace comprehensive sustainability measures during this 20-year period have improved the governance, technology, siting, and management in many cases. 

Details of results: 

This paper follows up on a seminal paper on aquaculture published in 2000 by some of the same authors in Nature. Aquaculture has made many transformations in feed ingredients, production technologies, farm management and value chains over the last 20 years. Consumers in low to high income nations have gained from the year round availability of these nutritious foods. Most freshwater fish farming occurs in household-managed ponds and small- to medium-scale commercial enterprises within polyculture systems, and the products are consumed by domestic markets. As such, the authors suggest that little incentive occurs to participate in recognized/ certified sustainable practices. Aquaculture in Asia is very diverse, while industry in the Western Hemisphere relies mostly on single or dual production systems (e.g., Atlantic salmon in cages). Advances in feed technology and breeding have focused on the latter. Growth rates are increasing rapidly in South America and Africa. Alleviation of rural poverty seen in South and Southeast Asia through the development of aquaculture is now occurring in parts of sub-Saharan Africa.   

Plant based feed has increased in aquaculture, reducing the dependence on feed made from wild fish. Some Asian countries, however, still rely on feed-grade fish, which can impact both freshwater and marine ecosystems . Shifting feed to plant based is not simple, as carnivorous fish can have difficulty digesting carbohydrates and fish are more sensitive than livestock to antinutrients and toxins in plant proteins – thus increasing the risk of disease. Using land based crops for aquafeed leads to another set of trade-offs, as according to life cycle analyses, greater than 90% of the environmental impact from fed aquaculture production comes from feed. Single-cell proteins, insect meal, and microalgae are being investigated for replacement in feed.  

As outlined above under “bottom line”, while molluscs, and seaweeds have sustainable characteristics, they also absorb viruses, bacteria, toxic algae, and polluted organic particles, creating food safety risks when raised in polluted environments. Globally, more than 97% of the volume of aquatic plants and algae comes from aquaculture. Global production has tripled in the last 20 years, with most produced in Asia. Approximately 1/3 is consumed directly as food, while the rest is used by the food industry sector (e.g., additives and ingredients) and by the non food sector (e.g., pharmaceutical, feed ingredients, biofuels, bioplastics).  

Some environmental performance trends have been positive, such as the decrease in habitat destruction in mangrove ecosystems from shrimp farming. However, the authors detail many remaining challenges including the effects of pathogens, parasites, and pests (PPP), pollution, harmful algal blooms, and climate change. Over-intensification, particularly in cage aquaculture, has resulted in nutrient pollution and pathogen-related problems. The authors argue that investments are required in strategies to prevent PPP, and warn that as aquaculture expands – particularly in low income regions -PPP out-breaks and human health risks from chemical substances used to prevent and treat pathogens  

will occur. Mostly as a result of human activity, harmful algae blooms are increasing across the world in “frequency, magnitude, duration, geographical ranges, and species composition” (p.558). Decreased agricultural productivity and livelihoods occur as a result of climate change issues such as “suboptimal growing temperatures, sea-level rise (saltwater intrusion), infrastructure damage, droughts and freshwater shortages, and rising feed costs… [and] ocean acidification” (p.558).  
 
Given the diversity of aquaculture systems across the globe, a variety of strategies are required to advance sustainable production, including ecosystem-based management, system design, and new forms of private and public sector governance. The authors suggest that new technologies need innovative financial and environmental management in order to be successful. They further stress the need for flexibility in governance in order to support the diversity of the stakeholders, while remaining accountable to environmental and social performance.  

Of additional interest: 

Table (formerly FCRN), offers a “Ask the Author” review and question and answer recording of this review.  See: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=YQx8a5n91X4&feature=youtu.be 

Editor’s comment:  

N/A 

Open access link to article: 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03308-6 

Conflict of interest/ Funding:  

“R.L.N. is a member of the Forest Protection Advisory Panel at Cargill, and the Center on Food Security and the Environment (FSE) has received funding from the Cargill Foundation for visiting scholars and staff support (but not for research). There has been no overlap between Cargill and research activities relating to aquaculture at the FSE.” (p. 563)  

External relevant links:  

N/A

Corresponding author: 

roz@stanford.edu  
(Dr. Rosamond Naylor)  

Millets prove tasty solution to climate and food security challenges (2021 May)

Image from the article by ICRISAT/Agathe Diama of women carrying pearl millet harvest home in Mali. The women have traditional baskets and bowls on their heads.

This article written by UN News promotes the 2023 International Year of Millets, and describes some of the high-levels reasons why millets have declined in human diets, and some of the reasons why millets should and are making a comeback. This article provides a good example of the intersection of traditional food cultures and ecological sustainability concepts.

While not referenced, the United Nations draws on UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data, generally relied upon as high quality. This article adds diversity to global perspectives on sustainable diets and food systems.

The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region

Binns C, Lee MK, Low WY, Zerfas A. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2017 Oct;29(7):617-24

Relevant to: 

Public Health Dietitian-Nutritionists working in middle to low-income countries who are interested in deepening their understanding of the relationship of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to nutrition and dietetic practice. 

 Question: 


This article discusses the role of public health nutrition, including the role of Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (2015-2030). This was completed through a literature search and document review from WHO, UNICEF and FAO websites. Findings were reviewed and presented at the 49th APACPH Conference held in South Korea in 2017. Each of the 17 SDGs were examined to link their relationship to public health nutrition.  

Bottom line for nutrition practice: 

The authors argue that Public Health Nutrition is crucial in achieving the SDGs, and have outlined how nutrition relates to each the 17 SDG goals. They state that Schools of Public Health need to ensure that their education curricula need to include SDGs. They further suggest that Schools of Public Health need to include Public Health Nutrition as a core discipline given the importance of nutrition as a risk factor for the concerns within SDGs. Finally, they suggest that research needs to occur to define how to best target nutrition programming in different countries and regions. 

Abstract:

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger—food), 3 (good health and well-being—healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production—sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender—education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is “good health and well-being,” which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300,000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of APACPH in education and advocacy and in fulfilling the educational needs of public health students in public health nutrition. 

Details of results:

The authors provide a table outlining how public health nutrition is related to each the 17 SDG goals. Selected examples most relevant to sustainability food systems from the table include:  

SDG 2: Poverty (people that are poor cannot afford food, cooking facilities, storage); SDG 12: Responsible consumption and sustainable production (reduce food waste and environmental contamination) SDG 13: Climate action (in relation to its impact on food production); SDG 14: Life below water (sustainable fishing, aquaculture); SDG 15: Life on the land (sustainable agriculture production); SDG 16: Peace (wars fought over hunger, food and water supplies). 

 
Of additional interest:  

This ICDA toolkit includes briefs relating several of the SDG goals to nutrition practice at: https://icdasustainability.org/resources/sdg-breifs/  

These briefs also make recommendations for practice that supports the corresponding SDG. 

UN Sustainable development goals:  
https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html 

Editor’s comment: 

N/A 

Open access link to article: 

N/A 

Conflict of interest/ Funding: 

N/A  

External relevant links: 

N/A

Corresponding author: 

c.binns@curtin.edu.au 

 

The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region

Citation: Binns C, Lee MK, Low WY, Zerfas A. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2017 Oct;29(7):617-24. 

Relevant to: 

Public Health Dietitians-Nutritionists working in middle to low-income countries who are interested in deepening their understanding of the relationship of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to nutrition and dietetic practice. 

Question: 

This article discusses the role of public health nutrition, including the role of Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (2015-2030). This was completed through a literature search and document review from WHO, UNICEF and FAO websites. Findings were reviewed and presented at the 49th APACPH Conference held in South Korea in 2017. Each of the 17 SDGs were examined to link their relationship to public health nutrition.  

Bottom line for nutrition practice: 

The authors argue that Public Health Nutrition is crucial in achieving the SDGs, and have outlined how nutrition relates to each the 17 SDG goals. They state that Schools of Public Health need to ensure that their education curricula need to include SDGs. They further suggest that Schools of Public Health need to include Public Health Nutrition as a core discipline given the importance of nutrition as a risk factor for the concerns within SDGs. Finally, they suggest that research needs to occur to define how to best target nutrition programming in different countries and regions. 

Abstract:

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger—food), 3 (good health and well-being—healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production—sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender—education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is “good health and well-being,” which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300,000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of APACPH in education and advocacy and in fulfilling the educational needs of public health students in public health nutrition. 

Details of results: 

The authors provide a table outlining how public health nutrition is related to each the 17 SDG goals. Selected examples most relevant to sustainability food systems from the table include:  

SDG 2: Poverty (people that are poor cannot afford food, cooking facilities, storage); SDG 12: Responsible consumption and sustainable production (reduce food waste and environmental contamination) SDG 13: Climate action (in relation to its impact on food production); SDG 14: Life below water (sustainable fishing, aquaculture); SDG 15: Life on the land (sustainable agriculture production); SDG 16: Peace (wars fought over hunger, food and water supplies). 

 Of additional interest:  

This ICDA toolkit includes briefs relating several of the SDG goals to nutrition practice at: https://icdasustainability.org/resources/sdg-breifs/  

These briefs also make recommendations for practice that supports the corresponding SDG. 

UN Sustainable development goals:  
https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html 

Editor’s comment: 

N/A 

Open access link to article: 

N/A 

Conflict of interest/ Funding: 

N/A  

External relevant links: 

N/A 

Marine Stewardship Council (website)

The international organization MSC (Marine Stewardship Council), a non-profit organization that aims to ensure the sustainability of the oceans and ensure that they are truly “the great pantry” of humanity in the future, is responsible for this product. MSC is a third-party certification for sustainable seafood that assesses population health, impact on marine environment and management of fisheries around the world. MSC’s blue-fish label is intended to help eaters identify sustainable seafood. It indicates to the consumer that its catch has been obtained through a technique that respects the environment, conservation and biodiversity.

This website is available in 18 different languages. MSC has certified 300 fisheries and 25,000 products from around the world. Evidence regarding the quality of their standards is included on the website. Their website offers information on the certification process as well as recipes, food guides, educational materials and support for supply chain actors about sustainable seafood in 18 languages. Information about specific fisheries is not available.

Navdanya: Network of Seed Keepers and Organic Producers in India

Navdanya’s website and resources offers regularly updated information about seed saving, culture, biodiversity and sustainability. The organization is women-led, and they offer an acroecological, eco-feminist perspective on the production of evidence, increasing diversity in the perspectives presented in this toolkit. The sources of information are clearly stated on the website and associated resources.

Organics & Millets e-Platform

This is a dynamic resource for producers and eaters in Southern India. It is also relevant as a broader resource for those working to revive traditional foods for health, sustainability and community economic development reasons. It presents an industrializing nation perspective on countering the pressures of the globalized, industrialized food system by supporting local, organic production of traditional crops.